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    The present study aim to estimate the possible effects of credit on production of wheat crop in district Chakwal, Pakistan. The research was based on primary data gathered from 120 farmers, selected by using random sampling technique belonging to two tehsils i.e. Talagang and Chakwal. SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) model was adapted to analyze the data and the results show the mean technical efficiency of the wheat crop was 88 % for borrowers and 76% for non-borrowers. The results proposed that the technical efficiency of wheat growers can be increased by increasing loan disbursement in the area.

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    Muhammad Fahad Irfan, Kaif Matloob, Muhammad Umer Afzal, Irfan Ahmad Baig

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    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of C. procera fresh leaves extract on cotton growth and vigor during seedling and early establishment stage. The trial was carried out in randomized complete block designed (RCBD) with 3 replications and 4 treatments viz., distilled water, 15%, 30% and 45% solution of Calotropis procera fresh leaves extracts. Data regarding the cotton seedling vigor and growth was collected and mean value of each trait were statistically compared through HSD Tukey’s test (P ≤ 0.05). The highest shoot length seedling-1 (252.25 mm), root length seedling-1 (98.33 mm), stem diameter seedling-1 (0.35 mm) and dry weight of the shoot seedling-1 (0.85 g) was noticed in distilled water treatment. Leaf extract treatments caused significant reduction in seedling vigor and growth. The highest reduction was noticed when treated with 45% aqueous extract of C. procera. The above-mentioned treatment caused significant reduction in various seedling traits, which may hinder early establishment of cotton crop. Therefore, the farmers should remove the dense population of C. procera around cotton fields to avoid allelopathic effects of weed and to reduce damaging effects on early growing cotton plants.

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    Khuram Mubeen, Asif Tanveer, Rao M. Ikram, M. Shehzad, Mudassir Aziz and H. M. Amir

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  • Abstract

    Oat [Avena sativa (L.)] cultivar “Super Green Oats” was developed through conventional breeding methods by the Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, and released as general cultivar in 2020. Commercial cultivar is an advanced line of “FRI-03” which is derived from cross of parental accessions (No. 668 × No. 632) and subsequent selections in various segregating populations (F2 - F6), through pedigree methods having uniformity > 99%. Cultivar had 9% and 15% forage yield advantage over commercial check “Sargodha-Oat 2011” during 2014 and 2015 station trials while it gave 9% higher fodder yield during 2016-17 during zonal trials over commercial check.. It is green, tall, multi-tillering, with slight later in maturing cultivar and produce light brown seed. It has many desirable forage quality traits, including high palatability (82%), protein content (10%) and had resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. It flower about 10 days later than standard check variety. Moreover, it has higher stability (coefficient of regression bi = 1.06) calculated over 3 environments for 2 years. Its robust yield combine with high palatability and high protein contents than standard check and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress show that Super Green Oat will be highly useful cultivars in both irrigated and arid region of Punjab Province. Moreover, the cultivar will be potential parent for the development of new pedigrees for the genetic improvement of oat germplasm.

    Digital object identifier:

    //doi.org/10.52587/JAF030201

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    Imtiaz Akram Khan Niazi

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    Researchers have been investigating multiple alternatives for synthetic plastic to completely replace polystyrene plastics, one of which is Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA is biodegradable and biocompatible, and it shows elastomeric and thermostable properties comparable to polystyrene. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacterial species TattaPani Kashmir and Karachi Mangrove forest capable of surviving high salinity and poroducing PHA. The isolated bacterial strains were provided with different growth conditions such as pH, Temperature and salinity for optimized growth and PHA production. Ten bacterial strains were selected for this experiment, and it was found that Bacillus aryabhattaiWK31 produced maximum (61%) PHA at 37℃, 6% NaCl and 6.8 pH. Similarly, strain Bacillus aryabhattaiS1, Bacillus halotoleranus14SM, and Bacillus aryabhattaiAFSN2 were also able to produce 55, 58 and 61 percent PHA at similar growth condition. Moreover, these bacteria, particularly 14Sm, were able to tolerate salinity as high as 12 g l-1. The importance of optimized growth conditions is unparalleled as bacteria, like other organisms, need ideal conditions to produce a maximum polymer.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF040201

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    Authors

    Naima Khan, Nazia Jamil