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  • Abstract

    The present study aim to estimate the possible effects of credit on production of wheat crop in district Chakwal, Pakistan. The research was based on primary data gathered from 120 farmers, selected by using random sampling technique belonging to two tehsils i.e. Talagang and Chakwal. SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) model was adapted to analyze the data and the results show the mean technical efficiency of the wheat crop was 88 % for borrowers and 76% for non-borrowers. The results proposed that the technical efficiency of wheat growers can be increased by increasing loan disbursement in the area.

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    Muhammad Fahad Irfan, Kaif Matloob, Muhammad Umer Afzal, Irfan Ahmad Baig

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    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of four major cash crops with high importance for sugar industry in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to evaluate biomass of ratoon sugarcane in response to organic supplements and coated fertilizer under three irrigation levels. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement of factors, replicated three times. Ratoon sugarcane clone CPF-249 was exposed to four levels of natural amendments or synthetic fertilizers and three irrigation levels during two growing seasons. Results suggested significant effects of dose and time of synthetic fertilizer application on all agronomic traits. All quality parameters were statistically non-¬significant, except for cane sugar recovery% (CSR) and commercial cane sugar concentration (CCS). Results of this study indicate that maximum millable cane yield was achieved under 100% irrigation and polymer coated Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer during 2016-17 with production of 13.2 stalks/m2 and 14.1stalks/m2 whereas, millable cane yield was reduced in both treatments in 2017-18. Maximum stripped cane yields of 47.7 and 40.8 t ha-1 were recorded under 100% irrigation level and polymer coated SSP fertilizer, respectively. A significant reduction in yield was observed at 50% irrigation and no fertilizer application. The maximum cane sugar recovery of 14.0 and 13.6% was achieved when plants were treated with polymer coated single super phosphate (SSP) fertilizer under 100% of recommended irrigation during the 2nd growing season.

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    Muhammad Sajid and Hassan Munir

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  • Abstract

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main source of food for the world population. The present study was aimed to find resistant germplasm against the leaf rust disease by screening the available varieties/lines and to study the relationship between abiotic environmental factors and leaf rust disease severity. Four hundred and eighty-seven wheat varieties/lines were screened against leaf rust disease under nursery conditions. No variety/line was found immune to the disease. Only four varieties/lines were resistant, six were moderately resistant, ninety-six varieties/lines were found moderately susceptible and 380 were found susceptible against the leaf rust infection. The relationship between maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and leaf rust disease severity on three susceptible wheat varieties (Hashim-08, SKD-1 and Khiram) was assessed using linear regression models. A strong negative linear relationship between leaf rust disease and maximum temperature was observed. Maximum disease severity was noted at 23-24 maximum temperature (oC). The relationship between leaf rust disease severity and minimum temperature was found positive and maximum disease severity was recorded at 15-16°C. Disease severity increased with the decrease of relative humidity. Maximum disease severity was recorded when relative humidity was between 84-85%. Maximum disease severity was recorded when rainfall was between 1-2mm.

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    Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Asim and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq

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  • Abstract

    Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) is devastating and widespread in potato fields. It is not only a cause of yield loss around the globe but also in Pakistan. Symptoms expression also characterize primary and secondary infection. Pathogen detection systems lead to the pathogen management system. Moreover, environmental conditions help make disease predictive model, leading to making plans to protect crops from the infectious virus infection. This review makes an overview of potato leaf roll transmission and its management. Symptomology and transmission of the virus through vector help are formulating the management strategies. The current literature helps the researchers to develop the genetical resistant and ecofriendly management against PLRV.

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    Mustansar Mubeen, Aqleem Abbas, Shehzad Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir Sohail, and Sonum Bashir

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  • Abstract

    The study focused on the evaluation and characterization of plant genetic resources of fodder legumes in northern Tunisia for the purpose of biodiversity conservation. The study was carried out on the biodiversity of legumes (Fabaceae) and their geographical distribution as well as on the ecological characterization of their natural environment using different ecological indices. Nine sites distributed in the governorates of Bizerte, Beja and Jendouba were visited to collect information. In this context, an inventory was carried out showing the presence of 40 different species of forage legumes divided into 15 genus, some of which exist in the three governorates prospected at the same time. The genus Trifolium and Medicago was the most diversified by the presence of 9 and 8 species. Thus, eight less diversified monospecific genus have been listed such as (Anthyllis, Calicotome, Hippocreppis, Lathyrus, Lupinus, Melilotus, Scorpiurus and Retama). We have also identified species with widespread distribution such as Trifolium campestre and Trifolium tomentosum and species with restricted geographical distribution such as Anthyllis vulneraria at Rimel in the governorate of Bizerte and Hippocreppis unisiliquosa in the governorate of Beja in Medjez El Bab. Shannon index showed differences between and within governorate. The three governorates studied have an average of 1.883 bits in Bizerta, 2.052 bits in Beja and 1.601 bits in Jendouba. This shows that diversity index is significantly higher in Béja compared to that of Bizerte and Jendouba. Jaccard similarity index calculated for the different studied localities.

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    Jandoubi Wassim, Ben Hassine Amna, Manai Amna, Kasri Mounir, Ben-Attia Mossadok, El-Bok Safia

  • Volume : 1 Issue : 1 Year: 2020

    Agriculture, Seed Industry and Post Pandemic Era

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  • Abstract

    Collectively we experience an unprecedented time in the history of humanity. This is true not only of the agricultural seed sector of Pakistan but of the world’s agricultural economies. The culprit being Coronavirus, oft dubbed as Covid-19. A culprit of pandemic proportion. What might be the ultimate impact on Pakistan’s seed sector? On the global agricultural economy? I share my personal musings. I do not claim to be clairvoyant but rather to simply raise questions of import related to various possible impacts that might emanate from the pandemic. Granted, I am not a Pakistani nor do I live in the nation. However, I am an observer having established ties to agricultural development efforts in the country. Those ties span and are intertwined with academic, industry and governmental initiatives and realities since 1992. My interests have been somewhat hybridized over the years to address issues within the context of agricultural extension and seed industry development. Issues and impacts, classified as being either near-term or long-term, will be explored. First, let us address the seed itself. The following thoughts address the seed industry. Last thoughts focus on the broader industry of agriculture. My reference points being observations across the US Midwest (corn and soybean production regions) and information gleaned from and about Pakistan.

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    Dennis Thompson

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  • Abstract

    This study was carried out in district Sheikhupura of Punjab to figure out the technical efficiency of strawberry farmers through stochastic frontier approach. Multistage sampling technique was employed to get the data from 120 strawberry growers. Cobb Douglas functional form was selected through log likelihood ratio test for stochastic frontier analysis. According to the results, mean value of technical efficiency of farmers was recorded as 64 percent, with the further breakthrough of minimum and maximum value of technical efficiency was 0.39 to 0.97 respectively. All variables of production were found positively related to yield. Estimates of the production function showed that fertilizer, land preparation, pesticide, labor hours were significant. Similarly inefficiency determinants such as family size, experience and credit were significant (P ≤ 0.05). All the inefficiency factors have expected negative sign except age of the farmers with positive sign.

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    Muhammad UmerAfzal, Nasir Mehmood, Sultan Ali Tariq, Muhammad Fahad Irfan

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  • Abstract

    Efficient in vitro culture system was standardized for potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. SH-5. Callus formation and plant regeneration were obtained by culture of potato leaf discs and internodal stem segments on MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators. MS medium fortified with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 4 mg L-1 showed the best results for callogenesis. There was 96% callus induction at 4 mg L-1 of 2,4-D by ,leaf explants as compared to 74% exhibited by intermodal stem segments. Embryogenic calli regenerated shoots on MS supplemented with 2 mg L-1 BAP + 2.5 mg L-1 NAA, had the highest efficiency (64% and 35%) and highest number of shoots per callus (5 and 2) from leaf and stem explants, respectively. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on MS medium. The highest rooting response (96%) was observed in the shoots originating from leaf callus as compared to 70% in shoots derived from stem callus. Rooted shoots were acclimatized in the glasshouse for plantation in the field.

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    Muhammad Azher Qureeshi, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan, Bushra Sadia

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  • Abstract

    Bioplastics are the ecofriendly, biodegradable and biocompatible plastics originated from many living bodies including bacteria. Two bacterial strains Exiguobacterium sp. and Klebsiella sp. were screened for PHA production by Nile Blue Staining and Sudan Black B Staining. Both strains exhibited PHA production ability. Time profiling for the growth of two strains was performed using four different culture media. The two strains were optimized for PHA production for different pH conditions using three different carbon sources as glucose (control), sodium gluconate and molasses. Molasses sample was estimated containing 59.2% carbohydrate and 5.89% protein content by Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method and Bradford Protein Assay respectively. Sodium Hypochlorite Method was used for PHA extraction. Exiguobacterium sp. showed exponential growth in molasses in 2% concentration and produced 54.0g/L biomass, 7.2 gL-1 or 13.3% PHA at 78 hours. With molasses as carbon source, biomass production by Klebsielliasp.was recorded optimal with 2% supplementation producing 88.7g/L biomass and 8.5g/L or 9.58% PHA, after 78 hours of incubation at 37 ºC. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis showed that Exiguobacterium sp. produced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) in medium supplemented with glucose as well as molasses as confirmed by the presence of C = O group at 1624.712 cm-1 and 1385.783 cm-1 respectively.

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    Rameesa Sadaat and Nazia Jamil

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  • Abstract

    Quinoa, a halophyte native of South America is famous for its acclimatization in new environments and adverse climatic conditions. Inadequate native quinoa production has encouraged its cultivation in new regions. One hundred and fifty quinoa genotypes belonging to a variety of origins were sown in the field under Faisalabad conditions to study relationship among morphological and physiological traits. Panicle Plant-1 had the highest direct effect on yield. Harvest index also emerged as the key parameter for seed yield determination perhaps being a yield parameter and laborious trait some other parameters are needed for quick assessment of high yielding quinoa under indigenous Pakistani conditions. Among biochemical traits, proline contents showed high positive direct on grain yield. On the basis of this information, a comprehensive quinoa improvement program was initiated for the selection of high yielding quinoa genotypes under shuttle breeding program carried out at two locations for the rapid segregation generation advancement of quinoa population. Simultaneous single plant selection in segregating generation (F2 ‒ F¬6) was done for proline contents initially during vegetative phase and subsequent selection of panicle plant-1 to constitute high yielding progenies. High yielding progenies were evaluated at three locations which showed significant improvement in economic yield over unselected accessions.

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    Hassan Munir

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  • Abstract

    Bioactive compounds are non-nutritive and functional nutrients of food commodities. They play a vital role in human health and reduce the chances of chronic diseases including cancer. Plants, animals and microbes are all source of different bioactive compounds. The conversion of macro particles in small particles to nano-meter is termed as nanotechnology. Encapsulation is the process of covering the active ingredient in protective core and the process at nano level is termed as nano-encapsulation. The active material is made safe from outer environmental threats and the bioactivity of bioactive compounds is extended. Emulsification, coacervation, nano-precipitation and emulsification-solvent evaporation techniques are important techniques to achieve nano-encapsulation. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds may also decrease the degradation and improves solubility and availability of bioactive compounds. Techniques for encapsulation may be develop keeping in view their biosafety issues. Efficiency of nano-encapsulation may depend upon the choice of best technique for encapsulation. Different techniques for encapsulation have been discussed within this review.

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    Muhammad Bahadur Ali, Shamas Murtaza, Muhammad Shahbaz, Shazia Ramzan and Muhammad Majid Ali

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  • Abstract

    Cereal aphid, Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae), is one of the destructive pests of wheat and other crops around the globe. Irrational utilization of highly toxic synthetic chemicals against this particular pest has led to several issues of health and environment. In such case, there is a need to find out the control measures, which are less toxic and friendly to environment. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of four indigenous plants, i.e. akk (Calotropis procera), lemon (Citrus limon), neem (Azadirachta indica) and dhatura (Datura alba), against S. avenae in laboratory conditions. Toxicity bioassays were conducted according to Completely Randomized Design using 2% aqueous extracts with three replications. Results showed a differential response of aphids to all botanical extracts. Aphid mortality increased with the exposure time with maximum values (i.e. 39.52, 31.75, 26.76 and 24.07% for A. indica, C. procera, C. limon and D. alba extracts, respectively) recorded at 72 h post-treatment. Similarly, A. indica extract exhibited minimum fecundity (2.67 offspring per adult) and adult body weight (340.09 µg) and maximum nymphal development time (9.32 days), followed by C. procera, C. limon and D. alba. Overall study results suggest that A. indica and C. procera extracts would be effective botanical options for combating aphid infestations on wheat and other cereal crops.

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    Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza

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  • Abstract

    This study was carried out for developing high yielding cotton genotypes having fiber superiority under drought stress conditions. Five upland cotton accessions were screened out as drought tolerant and three as drought susceptible on the basis of root shoot parameters. The results of root shoot screening experiment were verified in field screening on the basis of agronomical and physiological parameters. These eight genotypes were grown in glass house conditions and crossed in line × tester mating design. During the next cotton season, these fifteen cotton hybrids and parents were sown in field conditions. Traits related to yield and fiber quality under the study showed significant variations among the accessions and their half sibs. Furthermore, the line MS-64 and tester BH-176 had better yield performance under water stress. The cross combinations viz., GS-444 × MPS-11, and COOKER-315 × Cyto-62 were the best for yield contributing traits. These combinations may be helpful for germplasm enhancement on large scale under water scarcity.

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    Muhammad Akbar, Khezir Hayat, Farzana Ashraf, Syed Bilal Hussain, Hafiz Muhammad Imran

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  • Abstract

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of C. procera fresh leaves extract on cotton growth and vigor during seedling and early establishment stage. The trial was carried out in randomized complete block designed (RCBD) with 3 replications and 4 treatments viz., distilled water, 15%, 30% and 45% solution of Calotropis procera fresh leaves extracts. Data regarding the cotton seedling vigor and growth was collected and mean value of each trait were statistically compared through HSD Tukey’s test (P ≤ 0.05). The highest shoot length seedling-1 (252.25 mm), root length seedling-1 (98.33 mm), stem diameter seedling-1 (0.35 mm) and dry weight of the shoot seedling-1 (0.85 g) was noticed in distilled water treatment. Leaf extract treatments caused significant reduction in seedling vigor and growth. The highest reduction was noticed when treated with 45% aqueous extract of C. procera. The above-mentioned treatment caused significant reduction in various seedling traits, which may hinder early establishment of cotton crop. Therefore, the farmers should remove the dense population of C. procera around cotton fields to avoid allelopathic effects of weed and to reduce damaging effects on early growing cotton plants.

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    Khuram Mubeen, Asif Tanveer, Rao M. Ikram, M. Shehzad, Mudassir Aziz and H. M. Amir

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  • Abstract

    Sunflower is an important oil seed crop of world, which is predominately cultivated by hybrid seed. Sunflower breeders continue attempt new cross combinations to develop hybrids with higher manifestation of heterosis. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to develop highly heterotic hybrids. The manifestation of heterosis was studied in various phenological and agronomic traits of sunflower. There were 24 single cross hybrids produced by crossing among cytoplasmic male sterile and restorer lines in 2018. Developed crosses were evaluated in 2019 in randomized block design at Karaj, Iran. There was considerable heterosis in desired direction for phenological and agronomic traits which indicated that highly heterotic crosses may be selected to expand yield potential in Iran. Two hybrids R29 × A212 and R19 × A212 with higher seed and oil yield and positive heterosis for these two characteristics were identified as superior hybrids. The results indicated that association of optimum alleles related to flowering time may result in development of early maturing hybrids than related parents. Moreover, heterozgosity may mask recessive alleles, therefore, specific combining ability of parents may be more important than per se performance of inbred parents.The role of maternal effects should be taken into account in breeding of a trait and higher heterosis alone cannot be a reason for the superiority of a hybrid for a particular trait, and ultimate expression of a given feature is more important.

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    Mehdi Ghaffari, Farnaz Shariati, Nadia Safavi Fard

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  • Abstract

    Oat [Avena sativa (L.)] cultivar “Super Green Oats” was developed through conventional breeding methods by the Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, and released as general cultivar in 2020. Commercial cultivar is an advanced line of “FRI-03” which is derived from cross of parental accessions (No. 668 × No. 632) and subsequent selections in various segregating populations (F2 - F6), through pedigree methods having uniformity > 99%. Cultivar had 9% and 15% forage yield advantage over commercial check “Sargodha-Oat 2011” during 2014 and 2015 station trials while it gave 9% higher fodder yield during 2016-17 during zonal trials over commercial check.. It is green, tall, multi-tillering, with slight later in maturing cultivar and produce light brown seed. It has many desirable forage quality traits, including high palatability (82%), protein content (10%) and had resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. It flower about 10 days later than standard check variety. Moreover, it has higher stability (coefficient of regression bi = 1.06) calculated over 3 environments for 2 years. Its robust yield combine with high palatability and high protein contents than standard check and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress show that Super Green Oat will be highly useful cultivars in both irrigated and arid region of Punjab Province. Moreover, the cultivar will be potential parent for the development of new pedigrees for the genetic improvement of oat germplasm.

    Digital object identifier:

    //doi.org/10.52587/JAF030201

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    Imtiaz Akram Khan Niazi

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  • Abstract

    Researchers have been investigating multiple alternatives for synthetic plastic to completely replace polystyrene plastics, one of which is Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA is biodegradable and biocompatible, and it shows elastomeric and thermostable properties comparable to polystyrene. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacterial species TattaPani Kashmir and Karachi Mangrove forest capable of surviving high salinity and poroducing PHA. The isolated bacterial strains were provided with different growth conditions such as pH, Temperature and salinity for optimized growth and PHA production. Ten bacterial strains were selected for this experiment, and it was found that Bacillus aryabhattaiWK31 produced maximum (61%) PHA at 37℃, 6% NaCl and 6.8 pH. Similarly, strain Bacillus aryabhattaiS1, Bacillus halotoleranus14SM, and Bacillus aryabhattaiAFSN2 were also able to produce 55, 58 and 61 percent PHA at similar growth condition. Moreover, these bacteria, particularly 14Sm, were able to tolerate salinity as high as 12 g l-1. The importance of optimized growth conditions is unparalleled as bacteria, like other organisms, need ideal conditions to produce a maximum polymer.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF040201

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    Naima Khan, Nazia Jamil

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  • Abstract

    The awareness of Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variation in olive is pertinent for healthy plant growth. The aim of this research was to examine the seasonal variation of Ca and Mg contents in olive leaves. A field study was conducted for one year at University Research Farm, Chakwal, Pakistan. Leaf nutrients were measured on monthly basis during 2017 growing season. Six olive varieties BARI Zaitoon-1, PS-1, VP-1, Balkasar, Moraiolo and Chitina were selected. Preliminary soil sampling was done for evaluation of fertility status, soil texture, soil pH, EC, total organic matter, CaCO3, NO3-, available P, extractable K+, soluble Ca, Mg and Ca were analyzed initially. Soil was categorized as alkaline having no salinity issue and it was found weak to moderate calcareous, soil texture was sandy loam to loam. Organic Matter was less. The study revealed that there was deficient N, P whereas K, Ca and Mg were adequate in olive orchard. In olive, highest Ca peaks were noticed in summer season during the initiation of leaf development. The varietal comparison revealed that Ca concentration in each olive variety was above the sufficient level. In winter highest Mg peaks were noticed from fruit growth to the end of dormancy. There was no Mg deficiency among olive cultivars. The results recommend that there is further need to sample flower or fruits to understand the nutrient status of orchards.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF050201

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    Anum Farhat, Muhammad Fahad Irfan, Mavia Murad, Muhammad Umer Afzal

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  • Abstract

    Basmati rice is a fine and aromatic rice grown mainly in certain areas of Punjab province in Pakistan. It has high demand in the international market and a source of earning foreign exchange via export. Adulteration of non-basmati rice grains is a major challenge to secure its export standards. Hence, the development of a simple and cost-effective method is necessary to screen the basmati and non-basmati rice samples. In this study, we have validated the efficiency of different molecular markers by screening seven unknown rice samples. Our results demonstrated that three markers namely RM1, RM19 and RM225 proved to be efficient microsatellite molecular markers that could be used to screen basmati and non-basmati rice samples. Further, these results are validated based on expression pattern of Badh2 gene among the basmati and non-basmati rice. Thus, this study provides a contribution towards development of a simple and cost-effective method for rapid screening of basmati rice.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF0102012

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    Safeena Inam, Syed Adeel Zafar , Malik Attique-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Kashif, Naeem, Nazia Rehman and Muhammad Ramzan Khan*

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  • Abstract

    The study was conducted in order to identify the suitable parental inbred lines using top cross method for improvement of new sunflower F1 single cross hybrids at research field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj, Iran during two Crop season (2018 and 2019). Experimental materials consisted of 31 restore lines and 43 cytoplasmic male sterile lines which were crossed with A1221 and R14 as the testers respectively. The developed F1 hybrids were evaluated for GCA of three breeding objectives i.e. flowering time, plant height and grain yield during two years replicated trials. Cluster analysis revealed two heterotic groups in which the restorer lines; R22, R24 and R38 (Grain yield of 33, 32 and 31 g head-1 respectively) and three CMS lines; A32, A370 and A110 (Grain yield of 47, 44 and 43 g head-1 respectively) were identified as the suitable restorer and cytoplasmic male sterile line for improvement of new sunflower single cross hybrids. Evaluation of specific combing ability of the resulted combinations will reveal the efficiency of this selection in the following generation.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF020202

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    Mehdi Ghaffari, Farnaz Shariati, Habib Tashakkori Meymand, Nadia Safavi Fard

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  • Abstract

    An experiment of 4 × 4 diallel was carried out to study the gene action of different yield and yield contributing traits of four advanced cotton cultivars using Mather and Jinks approach. Significant variation was present for all the characters (P< 0.01). The data on recorded parameters revealed that most of the traits were fully or partially fit for genetic interpretation. Additive gene action (D) was significant and pre-dominant for all the characters while seeds per locule showed dominance effect of H1& H2, and it was confirmed by the value of degree of dominance (H1/D 0.5). The value of H2/4H1 and h2 (measures the direction of dominance) demonstrated asymmetrical division of dominant genes for all traits, except ginning out turn (G.O.T) percentage and fiber length, in parental material. All the studied traits showed high value of narrow sense heritability (h2NS), however seeds per locule possessed low heritability. The genetic analysis revealed that all the characters could be improved by progeny and pedigree selection, whereas hybrid dynamism could be exploited in the trait like seeds per locule.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF030202

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    Hafiz Mumtaz Hassan, Fahad Masoud Wattoo, Manzoor Hussain, Muhammad Kashif Riaz Khan , Sajjad Haidar and Allah Ditta1

  • Volume : 2 Issue : 2 Year: 2021

    Fruit drop in cotton: some causes

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  • Abstract

    Various aspects of fruit abscission in cotton have been reviewed in the past. Recent advances in this field thus permit consolidation of review of the current research. A major concern among cotton growers is heavy fruit drop, that leads to direct yield loss, which occurs at the expense of squares and young bolls. Shedding of fruiting forms in cotton is the combined consequence of plant itself like hormonal imbalance, plant nutritional status, age relation, and environmental stresses like water deficit, waterlogging, high temperature, dim light, salinity, insects and diseases. These stresses result in prominent signaling modifications like hormonal imbalance. Ethylene is claimed to play a key role in abscission apparently by activating the production of cell wall degrading enzymes such as cellulases and polygalacturonase. The premature dropping of fruiting bodies can significantly increase due to these environmental stresses, which result in severe loss in cotton yield. This article is focused on both internal and external factors that leads to fruit abscission, mechanism of fruit abscission at the physiological, hormonal, and molecular level and trying to point out the missing links on different aspects of plant hormones and environmental stresses regarding fruit abscission. This article also focused on the missing pieces of the very complicated puzzle of fruit abscission process in cotton and elucidation of the mechanism by which plants perceive abscission signals and trigger phytohormone–mediated signal transduction cascades is crucial to devise fruit shedding related breeding and transgenic approaches.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF040202

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    Hamza Qureshi, Ummara Waheed, Abu Bakar Siddique, Zulfiqar Ali, Raza Ahmed, Maria Sidduqiue, Irum Shahzadi, Ambreen Naz, Wajiha Ejaz, Nadeem Raza

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  • Abstract

    Oat is being cultivated as cereal and multi-cut forage crop in temperate and subtropical regions of the world. However, elite germplasm of oats was found susceptible to abiotic stresses including drought stress. Therefore, 15 oat accessions were evaluated for various traits using completely randomized factorial design under four irrigation levels, with depreciation of one irrigation at each level. Field was irrigated at 21, 33, 45, 57 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) under control condition (T1), while 2nd level received four irrigations at 21, 33, 45 and 70 DAS (T2), third level received three irrigation at 21, 35 and 57 DAS (T3) and fourth level received two irrigations at 21 and 35 DAS (T4). Data was recorded after 70 days of sowing for different physiological, growth and quality parameters. Significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) was detected among all accessions in response to various irrigational levels. There was continuous decrease in the studies due to depreciation of irrigation at each level. Control treatment had the highest growth and quality parameters. Shoot fresh biomass was decreased by decreased by 57% (T2), 60% (T3) and 69% (T4). Moreover, traits such as leaf area, number of tillers plant-1, and root biomass was also decreased by 38%, 55% and 85% respectively due to T4 treatment. Traits such as protein contents and neutral detergent fiber were not affected by water stress treatment. Three accessions such as G7, G9, and G11 were discriminated as drought-tolerant and three genotypes namely G4, G8, and G14 were drought-susceptible accessions. Identified accessions may be cultivated in drought prone areas or may be used as parents for development segregating populations. Keywords: Irrigation levels, seedling, traits, economical traits, QTLs

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF050202

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    Asma Shaheen, Amir Bibi, Muhammad Awais, Nisar Ahmad, Farwa Shoaib, Zainab Shahbaz, Bilquees Fatima, Imtiaz Akram Khan Niazi

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  • Abstract

    Field experiments were conducted at three different locations in central Punjab, Pakistan to evaluate the efficacy of different granular insecticides on suppression of rice stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas & Scirpophaga innotata) and plant hopper (Nilapervata lugens & Sogatella forcifera ) for two years (2018 and 2019) during Kharif season. Treatments comprised different granular insecticides; Cartap 4% G, Fipronil 0.3 G, Mover Plus 4.3 % (fipronil 0.3 % + cartap hydrochloride 4%) and Virteko 0.6 GR (chlorantraniliprole 0.2 % + thiamethoxam 0.4 %) @ 22.0, 20.0, 11.0 and 10 kg ha-1 respectively. All the insecticides showed varied efficacy against rice stem borer and plant hopper in minimizing the symptoms of dead hearts, white heads and hopper burn. The highest suppression efficacy was recorded with the chlorantraniliprol + thiamethoxam followed by fipronil + cartap hydrochloride against plant hoppers and stem borers. Experimental units treated with chlorantraniliprol + thiamethoxam showed the lowest hopper infestation (9,11 and 8 hoppers per plant) as compared to control where 70, 75 and 68 hoppers per plant was recorded for location I, II and III, respectively. Granular insecticide i.e. chlorantraniliprol + thiamethoxam also reduced the stem borer infestation @ 76, 81 & 78 % at location I, II and III respectively. The experimental unit treated with chlorantraniliprol + thiamethoxam showed a 22% (4266.6 kg ha-1) and 23% (4288.3 kg ha-1) higher paddy yield than control for 2018 and 2019, respectively.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF060202

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    Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Saleem Kashif , Aftab Hussain, Ahmad Nawaz, Iqra Sajjad, Ghulam Nabi, Humaira Kalsoom, Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Anjum Ali

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  • Abstract

    significant extent under changing climate scenarios. Drastic impact of climatic variability demands suitable solutions including adaption through climate-proof cropping system. Similar intervention was focused through the subject study conducted during winter 2019 to assess cultivation of exotic USDA safflower accessions under various environments of Punjab, Pakistan. Four locations i.e. Bahawalpur, Faisalabad, Kasur and Rawalpindi were selected for cultivation of previously screened six safflower candidate lines in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangements. Seed yield, oil quality and contents was calculated. Results revealed that the performance of safflower accessions of exotic origin perofmred variably under variety of climates. Safflower accession PI-198990 exhibited the highest seed yield at Kasur whereas, PI-199907reflected the least yield at Bahawalpur. High oil contents were estimated at Faisalabad when compared withother locations under study. However, the maximum accumulation of oleic acid was recorded in safflower planted at Bahawalpur. On the other hand, Rawalpindi sown safflower exhibited the maximum content of linoleic acid. As far the morpho-physiological attributes are concerned, positive and significant relationship of seed yield with number of branches, number of heads and thousand seed weight were recorded whereas, linoleic acid showed strongly negative correlation with oleic acid content. Therefore, it is concluded that environmental variation had significantly influenced safflower yield, oil and fatty acids contents.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF070202

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    Muhammad Sajid, Hassan Munir, Abdul Khaliq, Ghulam Murtazza

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  • Abstract

    Citrus is an important table fruit having refreshing taste and rich source of vitamin C. Citrus sinensis is an important species of citrus which is being consumed by large masses due to its peculiar taste and high sugar content and early availability in the fruit market. A study was conducted to identify the potential varieties of this commercial species. Commercial varieties were evaluated for yield related and biochemical traits. It was identified that commercial variety “Salustiana” had the fruit of largest mass, least number of seed, juice mass, volume and peel mass. Disease free nursery may be developed to commercial this variety in core area of Punjab and may also be used in molecular studies.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF080202

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    Mehwish Sidique, Rashad Mukhtar Balal, Ahmad Zeeshan

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    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a genetically diverse group of vegetables having various cultivars with distinct traits. The study was conducted to explore the available germplasm of cucumber for better yield. Different commercial open pollinated and hybrid varieties of cucumber were planted in the field and evaluated for morphological variability in traits such as canopy, floral and fruit traits. Higher leaf length (6.16 mm) and width (6.29 mm) was found in “CP001” whereas the highest length (2.39 m) of first 15 nodes was observed in “Local khera” accession. However, dark color leaves were observed in “4308” accession. The highest number of female flowers plant-1were observed in “CP001” (3.33) and “Champion” (2.67) accession whereas the highest male flowers were observed in “Local khera” (329.33) and “Green pearl” (313.33). The highest number of fruits plant-1 were found in accessions “CP001” (18) and Local khera (17). Similarly, the highest fruit yield plant-1 was found in accession “CP001” (3.15 kg) followed by Local khera (2.98 kg). It was concluded from current studies that accession “CP001” performed better under Faisalabad climatic conditions.

    Digital object identifier:

    doi.org/10.52587/JAF010301

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    Faheem Khadija, Bilquees Fatima* and Muhammad Usman

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    At present time, farmers’ conflicts are considered as emerging threat to supply chain from agricultural production to consumption. Rural conflicts are on top especially those may intimidate the integrity of agricultural activities in the country. These conflicts also cause hindrance for smooth transfer of agricultural technology. Present study was conducted in Sargodha district of Punjab province in Pakistan. The population for the present study consists of all residents of rural areas of district Sargodha. Multistage sampling technique was used for selection of the sample from the study area. The data were analyzed using computer software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive and inferential statistics such as ranks, mean scores, percentages and non-parametric Chi-square test were used for interpretation of the data. It is concluded that farmer-to-farmer conflicts are of complex in nature due to low education and difference in social status. It is further concluded that trust-deficit between farmers and Extension field staff exists and provides huge constraint for transfer of technology among farming community in the study area. It is recommended that EFS must possess accommodative attitude towards farmers to resolve their conflicts and must be incorporated in their job responsibilities and training curriculum.

    Digital object identifier:

    doi.org/10.52587/JAF040301

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    Ejaz Ashraf, Hafiz Muhammad Afzal Sultan, Saima Sadaf, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Khalid Mahmood, Mujahid Iqbal, Muhammad Arshed Javed, Syed Mukarram Ali

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  • Abstract

    Garlic (Allium satium L.) is categorized as an important medicinal plant worldwide which was known for its very high therapeutic value. Several biotic and abiotic factors may affect its sustainable yield and quality. Viral diseases of garlic Asexual mode of propagation may cause of spread of viral diseases in garlic which may be eliminated through in vitro techniques. Therefore, research was carried out to determine effect of different sterilization methods, carbon source and explant on in vitro production of disease-free garlic. The highest numbers of clean cultures were obtained using treatment combination of 70% ethanol 1 min-1 and 55% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) 20 minutes-1. All other treatments either fail to produce clear cultures or reduced the efficiency of germination. Sugar and maltose were used as carbon source and no significant variation was observed among them during germination of cloves Two commercial varieties NARC G1 and White garlic were used as source of explant. Calli mass were assessed after interval of every 10-15 days and subsequently sub-cultured. Data was obtained after 60 days. Both accessions produced maximum callus (59.73% and 58.39% respectively) when used shoots were used explant. The calli were yellowish white in hue and had a dense and nodular morphology. Different concentrations of 2, 4-D showed significant variations in the average frequency of induced calli, germinated shoots explant of NARC G1 variety of garlic produced the highest calli at plant growth regulator concentration of 3.0 mg L-1 of 2,4-D. The result of present studies may provide a source of disease-free material for genetic manipulation of garlic genotypes.

    Digital object identifier:

    10.52587/JAF020301

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    Nida Asif, Sehar Nawaz , Fozia Saleem, Saba Tabasum , Tayyaba Naz,

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  • Abstract

    Generation mean analysis through 6 parameter model for three parents along with four generations viz F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of two crosses of Brassica campestris was studied and evaluation was done in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications in 2019. Additive variance was noted for 1000 seed weight in cross Span × Toria and for days to 50% flowering in cross TR8 × Toria. Hence selection at early generation may be helpful for the improvement of these traits. Negative dominance effect was present for glucosinolate in cross TR8×Toria which might be supportive for the reduction of this trait. Genetic interactions were found fixable for plant height, siliqua length, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, number of seeds per siliqua, yield, oleic acid and erucic acid in cross Span × Toria and for plant height, siliqua length, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, oil contents, oleic acid, linoleic acid, erucic acid and glucosinolate in cross TR8 ×Toria. The traits showed fixable interaction mass selection and progeny selection would be effective while for others exploitation of heterosis breeding may be effective and selection would be delayed to attain homozygosity.

    Digital object identifier:

    10.52587/JAF040301

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    Salsabeel Rauf, Muhammad Ahsan Iqbal, Hafeez Ahmad Sadaqat , Nisar Ahmed

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  • Abstract

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive soil bacterium that makes crystal proteins toxic for insects, particularly larvae of Diptera and Lepidopteron. Bt genes has been frequently used to develop genetically modified (GM) insect resistant crops. Various factors affecting the gene expression and protein accumulation in GM crops hence, present work was designed to evaluate the effects of temperatures and age on expression pattern of Cry1Ac gene in Bt cotton. Transformation event was verified using digital PCR and the presence of endotoxin was initially confirmed through immuno-strip assay. Toxin accumulation level in top third leaf was investigated using quantitative ELISA after 20 days intervals starting from 60 days. Results showed that protein level gradually increased with plant’s age, and it was maximum at 100 days in plants placed under 35oC. Toxin level declined under all temperature regimes at advanced growth stages and minimal toxin was observed at 25oC. Bt cotton MNH-886 showed higher and stable toxin accumulation in comparison with FH-lalazar even at elevated temperatures and lateral growth stages. These findings demonstrated that expression of Cry1Ac gene is influenced by temperatures and age of the plant, while MNH-886 is a more stable genotype regarding Cry1Ac protein accumulation.

    Digital object identifier:

    10.52587/JAF050301

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    Sajid ur Rahman, Shahid Nazir , Imran Habib, Muhammad Younas, Khalid Mahmood

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  • Abstract

    The present study was carried out in 2020 to analyse the fertilizer management practices pertaining to its sources and application methods in the perspective of 4R approach, at farm level, in the rice-wheat cropping zone of Punjab-Pakistan. Multistage random sampling and cross sectional research design were used to conduct the study in Sheikhupura and Nankana Sahib districts of Punjab were randomly selected. Two tehsils namely Muridke and Shahkot from two districts and 5 rural UCs from each tehsil were randomly selected. A sample size of 400 rice farmers was drawn with 5% confidence interval and 95% confidence level. The data were collected through a well-structured interview schedule which was pretested for validity and reliability. The quantitative data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. It was found that the efficient usage of fertilizers was hindered by some socio-economic problems and concluded that there was highly significant association between fertilizer management practices and socio-economic variables. It was recommended that the provincial government should encourage local production of the seed and fertilizer drills at subsidized prices so that the farmers can afford to apply efficient fertilizer application methods. It was also recommended that extension wing of agriculture department should design tailor-made training modules about the economic returns of using efficient fertilizer sources and application methods such as placement, fertigation or drill after standardizing them according to local farm conditions.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF00301

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    Asif Ali1,*, Babar Shahbaz2, Ijaz Ashraf3 and Muhammad Maqsood4

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    Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) is susceptible to most disastrous Curvularia leaf spot disease which severely affects the eggplant yield, quality, and leads to severe economic losses and becoming an alarming problem for farming community. In this regard, 15 accessions of brinjal were screened against leaf blight. Result showed that two hybrids (“Sandhya F1”, “Chaudry 54 F1”) showed resistant response with 4.72 and 3.95% disease incidence, respectively. Four varieties (“Twinkle star”, “Janak F1”, “Rani”, “Brinjal 3715”) showed moderately resistant response against leaf blight. Two accessions (“Dilnasheen”, “EP-273”) of them exhibited moderately susceptible and two (Pahuja Black round, Black pearl long) showed susceptible response towards leaf blight. Highly susceptible response was shown by five varieties/advance lines including Local-II Ever green, Black Beauty SSI, Global Round-Desi, Green Gold and Local-I Ever green with 96.68, 94.62, 93.67, 87.66 and 87.43% disease incidence, respectively. All these epidemiological factors (temperature, humidity, rainfall) showed highly positive correlation with disease development. It is concluded that “Sandhya-F1” and “Chaudry (54)-F1” can be used as resistant varieties against leaf blight disease of brinjal.

    Digital object identifier:

    doi.org/10.52587/JAF030301

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    Muhammad Atiq, Isra Naeem, Nasir Ahmed Rajput, Muhammad Usman, Shahid Iqbal, Ahmad Nawaz,Tahreem Fatima, Fahad Yaqoob, Muhammad Kashif, Mariam Ashraf

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  • Abstract

    This study was conducted at Barani Agricultural Research Station, Fatehjang, Punjab, Pakistan for two years during 2018 and 2019. A set of one hundred genotypes of wheat including commercial varieties and advanced lines from different sources were screened against yellow rust under field conditions. Based on observations against yellow rust, it was found that out of these 100 wheat genotypes 48 showed 60-100% yellow rust severity and characterized as susceptible to moderately susceptible. Twenty-three genotypes showed 40 – 59% yellow rust infection, while 17 showed 20-39% disease severity and characterized as moderately susceptible & moderately resistant to moderately susceptible respectively. Four genotypes showed 10-19% disease severity and were characterized as moderately resistant while only eight genotypes remained resistant. Yield losses were more than 46 % in wheat genotypes having maximum yellow rust severity upto 80% and yield losses were minimum in moderately resistant to resistant genotypes. When the maximum temperature rises in the winter months (February and March) then an increase in the yellow rust epidemic was seen. It was concluded from the study of these two consecutive years that the stripe rust disease epidemic is highly dependent on favorable environmental conditions like more humidity due to rainfall and a rise in maximum temperature.

    Digital object identifier:

    doi.org/10.52587/JAF080301

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    Shiraz Ali, Muhammad Imran Khan, Muhammad Shahbaz,, Ghulam Nabi, Muhammad Zeeshan, Saba Aleem, Manzoor Hussain, Saadia

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  • Abstract

    The research study was carried out in the year 2019 to evaluate the sugar mills extension services on promoting modern sugarcane production technology and its impact on sugarcane production in district Muzaffargarh. A sample of 120 sugarcane growers was selected and interviewed personally from eight Union Councils (UC) of the study area. The results revealed that demographic traits were significantly linked with sugarcane production. All the respondents in the area acknowledged getting information regarding modern sugarcane cultivation practices and the latest research findings from sugar mills staff on enhancing sugarcane productivity. The most notable finding was the awareness and adoption of approved & recommended sugarcane varieties, filter cake, facility of soil/water testing and biological control laboratories services of sugar mills. Moreover, a 23.3% increase in sugarcane yield per acre was seen due to the facilitation of sugar mills extension services in the study area.

    Digital object identifier:

    doi.org/10.52587/JAF090301

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    Muhammad Umair Farooq, Farhat Ullah Khan, Zahid Iqbal, Syed Zia-ul-Hussnain, Mahwish Siraj