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ISSN 2709-3662 (Print) ISSN 2709-3670 (Online) Journal of Agriculture and Food is abbreviated as J. Agric. Food. Journal is an official publication of university of Sargodha and is published by the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sargodha. The aim of journal is to publish high quality article on all aspects of agriculture and its allied sciences. Journal provides a rapid forum to publish article which emphasis on innov... Read More

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Volume 2, Issue 1, 2021

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  • Abstract

    The present study aim to estimate the possible effects of credit on production of wheat crop in district Chakwal, Pakistan. The research was based on primary data gathered from 120 farmers, selected by using random sampling technique belonging to two tehsils i.e. Talagang and Chakwal. SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) model was adapted to analyze the data and the results show the mean technical efficiency of the wheat crop was 88 % for borrowers and 76% for non-borrowers. The results proposed that the technical efficiency of wheat growers can be increased by increasing loan disbursement in the area.

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    Muhammad Fahad Irfan, Kaif Matloob, Muhammad Umer Afzal, Irfan Ahmad Baig

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  • Abstract

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of four major cash crops with high importance for sugar industry in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to evaluate biomass of ratoon sugarcane in response to organic supplements and coated fertilizer under three irrigation levels. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement of factors, replicated three times. Ratoon sugarcane clone CPF-249 was exposed to four levels of natural amendments or synthetic fertilizers and three irrigation levels during two growing seasons. Results suggested significant effects of dose and time of synthetic fertilizer application on all agronomic traits. All quality parameters were statistically non-¬significant, except for cane sugar recovery% (CSR) and commercial cane sugar concentration (CCS). Results of this study indicate that maximum millable cane yield was achieved under 100% irrigation and polymer coated Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer during 2016-17 with production of 13.2 stalks/m2 and 14.1stalks/m2 whereas, millable cane yield was reduced in both treatments in 2017-18. Maximum stripped cane yields of 47.7 and 40.8 t ha-1 were recorded under 100% irrigation level and polymer coated SSP fertilizer, respectively. A significant reduction in yield was observed at 50% irrigation and no fertilizer application. The maximum cane sugar recovery of 14.0 and 13.6% was achieved when plants were treated with polymer coated single super phosphate (SSP) fertilizer under 100% of recommended irrigation during the 2nd growing season.

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    Muhammad Sajid and Hassan Munir

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  • Abstract

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main source of food for the world population. The present study was aimed to find resistant germplasm against the leaf rust disease by screening the available varieties/lines and to study the relationship between abiotic environmental factors and leaf rust disease severity. Four hundred and eighty-seven wheat varieties/lines were screened against leaf rust disease under nursery conditions. No variety/line was found immune to the disease. Only four varieties/lines were resistant, six were moderately resistant, ninety-six varieties/lines were found moderately susceptible and 380 were found susceptible against the leaf rust infection. The relationship between maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and leaf rust disease severity on three susceptible wheat varieties (Hashim-08, SKD-1 and Khiram) was assessed using linear regression models. A strong negative linear relationship between leaf rust disease and maximum temperature was observed. Maximum disease severity was noted at 23-24 maximum temperature (oC). The relationship between leaf rust disease severity and minimum temperature was found positive and maximum disease severity was recorded at 15-16°C. Disease severity increased with the decrease of relative humidity. Maximum disease severity was recorded when relative humidity was between 84-85%. Maximum disease severity was recorded when rainfall was between 1-2mm.

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    Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Asim and Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq

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  • Abstract

    Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) is devastating and widespread in potato fields. It is not only a cause of yield loss around the globe but also in Pakistan. Symptoms expression also characterize primary and secondary infection. Pathogen detection systems lead to the pathogen management system. Moreover, environmental conditions help make disease predictive model, leading to making plans to protect crops from the infectious virus infection. This review makes an overview of potato leaf roll transmission and its management. Symptomology and transmission of the virus through vector help are formulating the management strategies. The current literature helps the researchers to develop the genetical resistant and ecofriendly management against PLRV.

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    Mustansar Mubeen, Aqleem Abbas, Shehzad Iqbal, Muhammad Aamir Sohail, and Sonum Bashir

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  • Abstract

    The study focused on the evaluation and characterization of plant genetic resources of fodder legumes in northern Tunisia for the purpose of biodiversity conservation. The study was carried out on the biodiversity of legumes (Fabaceae) and their geographical distribution as well as on the ecological characterization of their natural environment using different ecological indices. Nine sites distributed in the governorates of Bizerte, Beja and Jendouba were visited to collect information. In this context, an inventory was carried out showing the presence of 40 different species of forage legumes divided into 15 genus, some of which exist in the three governorates prospected at the same time. The genus Trifolium and Medicago was the most diversified by the presence of 9 and 8 species. Thus, eight less diversified monospecific genus have been listed such as (Anthyllis, Calicotome, Hippocreppis, Lathyrus, Lupinus, Melilotus, Scorpiurus and Retama). We have also identified species with widespread distribution such as Trifolium campestre and Trifolium tomentosum and species with restricted geographical distribution such as Anthyllis vulneraria at Rimel in the governorate of Bizerte and Hippocreppis unisiliquosa in the governorate of Beja in Medjez El Bab. Shannon index showed differences between and within governorate. The three governorates studied have an average of 1.883 bits in Bizerta, 2.052 bits in Beja and 1.601 bits in Jendouba. This shows that diversity index is significantly higher in Béja compared to that of Bizerte and Jendouba. Jaccard similarity index calculated for the different studied localities.

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    Jandoubi Wassim, Ben Hassine Amna, Manai Amna, Kasri Mounir, Ben-Attia Mossadok, El-Bok Safia

  • Volume : 1 Issue : 1 Year: 2020

    Agriculture, Seed Industry and Post Pandemic Era

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  • Abstract

    Collectively we experience an unprecedented time in the history of humanity. This is true not only of the agricultural seed sector of Pakistan but of the world’s agricultural economies. The culprit being Coronavirus, oft dubbed as Covid-19. A culprit of pandemic proportion. What might be the ultimate impact on Pakistan’s seed sector? On the global agricultural economy? I share my personal musings. I do not claim to be clairvoyant but rather to simply raise questions of import related to various possible impacts that might emanate from the pandemic. Granted, I am not a Pakistani nor do I live in the nation. However, I am an observer having established ties to agricultural development efforts in the country. Those ties span and are intertwined with academic, industry and governmental initiatives and realities since 1992. My interests have been somewhat hybridized over the years to address issues within the context of agricultural extension and seed industry development. Issues and impacts, classified as being either near-term or long-term, will be explored. First, let us address the seed itself. The following thoughts address the seed industry. Last thoughts focus on the broader industry of agriculture. My reference points being observations across the US Midwest (corn and soybean production regions) and information gleaned from and about Pakistan.

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    Dennis Thompson

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  • Abstract

    This study was carried out in district Sheikhupura of Punjab to figure out the technical efficiency of strawberry farmers through stochastic frontier approach. Multistage sampling technique was employed to get the data from 120 strawberry growers. Cobb Douglas functional form was selected through log likelihood ratio test for stochastic frontier analysis. According to the results, mean value of technical efficiency of farmers was recorded as 64 percent, with the further breakthrough of minimum and maximum value of technical efficiency was 0.39 to 0.97 respectively. All variables of production were found positively related to yield. Estimates of the production function showed that fertilizer, land preparation, pesticide, labor hours were significant. Similarly inefficiency determinants such as family size, experience and credit were significant (P ≤ 0.05). All the inefficiency factors have expected negative sign except age of the farmers with positive sign.

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    Muhammad UmerAfzal, Nasir Mehmood, Sultan Ali Tariq, Muhammad Fahad Irfan

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  • Abstract

    Efficient in vitro culture system was standardized for potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. SH-5. Callus formation and plant regeneration were obtained by culture of potato leaf discs and internodal stem segments on MS medium supplemented with different growth regulators. MS medium fortified with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at 4 mg L-1 showed the best results for callogenesis. There was 96% callus induction at 4 mg L-1 of 2,4-D by ,leaf explants as compared to 74% exhibited by intermodal stem segments. Embryogenic calli regenerated shoots on MS supplemented with 2 mg L-1 BAP + 2.5 mg L-1 NAA, had the highest efficiency (64% and 35%) and highest number of shoots per callus (5 and 2) from leaf and stem explants, respectively. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on MS medium. The highest rooting response (96%) was observed in the shoots originating from leaf callus as compared to 70% in shoots derived from stem callus. Rooted shoots were acclimatized in the glasshouse for plantation in the field.

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    Muhammad Azher Qureeshi, Iftikhar Ahmad Khan, Bushra Sadia

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  • Abstract

    Bioplastics are the ecofriendly, biodegradable and biocompatible plastics originated from many living bodies including bacteria. Two bacterial strains Exiguobacterium sp. and Klebsiella sp. were screened for PHA production by Nile Blue Staining and Sudan Black B Staining. Both strains exhibited PHA production ability. Time profiling for the growth of two strains was performed using four different culture media. The two strains were optimized for PHA production for different pH conditions using three different carbon sources as glucose (control), sodium gluconate and molasses. Molasses sample was estimated containing 59.2% carbohydrate and 5.89% protein content by Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method and Bradford Protein Assay respectively. Sodium Hypochlorite Method was used for PHA extraction. Exiguobacterium sp. showed exponential growth in molasses in 2% concentration and produced 54.0g/L biomass, 7.2 gL-1 or 13.3% PHA at 78 hours. With molasses as carbon source, biomass production by Klebsielliasp.was recorded optimal with 2% supplementation producing 88.7g/L biomass and 8.5g/L or 9.58% PHA, after 78 hours of incubation at 37 ºC. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy analysis showed that Exiguobacterium sp. produced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) in medium supplemented with glucose as well as molasses as confirmed by the presence of C = O group at 1624.712 cm-1 and 1385.783 cm-1 respectively.

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    Rameesa Sadaat and Nazia Jamil

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  • Abstract

    Quinoa, a halophyte native of South America is famous for its acclimatization in new environments and adverse climatic conditions. Inadequate native quinoa production has encouraged its cultivation in new regions. One hundred and fifty quinoa genotypes belonging to a variety of origins were sown in the field under Faisalabad conditions to study relationship among morphological and physiological traits. Panicle Plant-1 had the highest direct effect on yield. Harvest index also emerged as the key parameter for seed yield determination perhaps being a yield parameter and laborious trait some other parameters are needed for quick assessment of high yielding quinoa under indigenous Pakistani conditions. Among biochemical traits, proline contents showed high positive direct on grain yield. On the basis of this information, a comprehensive quinoa improvement program was initiated for the selection of high yielding quinoa genotypes under shuttle breeding program carried out at two locations for the rapid segregation generation advancement of quinoa population. Simultaneous single plant selection in segregating generation (F2 ‒ F¬6) was done for proline contents initially during vegetative phase and subsequent selection of panicle plant-1 to constitute high yielding progenies. High yielding progenies were evaluated at three locations which showed significant improvement in economic yield over unselected accessions.

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    Hassan Munir

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  • Abstract

    Bioactive compounds are non-nutritive and functional nutrients of food commodities. They play a vital role in human health and reduce the chances of chronic diseases including cancer. Plants, animals and microbes are all source of different bioactive compounds. The conversion of macro particles in small particles to nano-meter is termed as nanotechnology. Encapsulation is the process of covering the active ingredient in protective core and the process at nano level is termed as nano-encapsulation. The active material is made safe from outer environmental threats and the bioactivity of bioactive compounds is extended. Emulsification, coacervation, nano-precipitation and emulsification-solvent evaporation techniques are important techniques to achieve nano-encapsulation. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds may also decrease the degradation and improves solubility and availability of bioactive compounds. Techniques for encapsulation may be develop keeping in view their biosafety issues. Efficiency of nano-encapsulation may depend upon the choice of best technique for encapsulation. Different techniques for encapsulation have been discussed within this review.

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    Muhammad Bahadur Ali, Shamas Murtaza, Muhammad Shahbaz, Shazia Ramzan and Muhammad Majid Ali

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  • Abstract

    Cereal aphid, Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae), is one of the destructive pests of wheat and other crops around the globe. Irrational utilization of highly toxic synthetic chemicals against this particular pest has led to several issues of health and environment. In such case, there is a need to find out the control measures, which are less toxic and friendly to environment. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of aqueous extracts of four indigenous plants, i.e. akk (Calotropis procera), lemon (Citrus limon), neem (Azadirachta indica) and dhatura (Datura alba), against S. avenae in laboratory conditions. Toxicity bioassays were conducted according to Completely Randomized Design using 2% aqueous extracts with three replications. Results showed a differential response of aphids to all botanical extracts. Aphid mortality increased with the exposure time with maximum values (i.e. 39.52, 31.75, 26.76 and 24.07% for A. indica, C. procera, C. limon and D. alba extracts, respectively) recorded at 72 h post-treatment. Similarly, A. indica extract exhibited minimum fecundity (2.67 offspring per adult) and adult body weight (340.09 µg) and maximum nymphal development time (9.32 days), followed by C. procera, C. limon and D. alba. Overall study results suggest that A. indica and C. procera extracts would be effective botanical options for combating aphid infestations on wheat and other cereal crops.

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    Muhammad Rehan Khalid, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza

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  • Abstract

    This study was carried out for developing high yielding cotton genotypes having fiber superiority under drought stress conditions. Five upland cotton accessions were screened out as drought tolerant and three as drought susceptible on the basis of root shoot parameters. The results of root shoot screening experiment were verified in field screening on the basis of agronomical and physiological parameters. These eight genotypes were grown in glass house conditions and crossed in line × tester mating design. During the next cotton season, these fifteen cotton hybrids and parents were sown in field conditions. Traits related to yield and fiber quality under the study showed significant variations among the accessions and their half sibs. Furthermore, the line MS-64 and tester BH-176 had better yield performance under water stress. The cross combinations viz., GS-444 × MPS-11, and COOKER-315 × Cyto-62 were the best for yield contributing traits. These combinations may be helpful for germplasm enhancement on large scale under water scarcity.

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    Muhammad Akbar, Khezir Hayat, Farzana Ashraf, Syed Bilal Hussain, Hafiz Muhammad Imran

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  • Abstract

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of C. procera fresh leaves extract on cotton growth and vigor during seedling and early establishment stage. The trial was carried out in randomized complete block designed (RCBD) with 3 replications and 4 treatments viz., distilled water, 15%, 30% and 45% solution of Calotropis procera fresh leaves extracts. Data regarding the cotton seedling vigor and growth was collected and mean value of each trait were statistically compared through HSD Tukey’s test (P ≤ 0.05). The highest shoot length seedling-1 (252.25 mm), root length seedling-1 (98.33 mm), stem diameter seedling-1 (0.35 mm) and dry weight of the shoot seedling-1 (0.85 g) was noticed in distilled water treatment. Leaf extract treatments caused significant reduction in seedling vigor and growth. The highest reduction was noticed when treated with 45% aqueous extract of C. procera. The above-mentioned treatment caused significant reduction in various seedling traits, which may hinder early establishment of cotton crop. Therefore, the farmers should remove the dense population of C. procera around cotton fields to avoid allelopathic effects of weed and to reduce damaging effects on early growing cotton plants.

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    Khuram Mubeen, Asif Tanveer, Rao M. Ikram, M. Shehzad, Mudassir Aziz and H. M. Amir

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  • Abstract

    Sunflower is an important oil seed crop of world, which is predominately cultivated by hybrid seed. Sunflower breeders continue attempt new cross combinations to develop hybrids with higher manifestation of heterosis. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to develop highly heterotic hybrids. The manifestation of heterosis was studied in various phenological and agronomic traits of sunflower. There were 24 single cross hybrids produced by crossing among cytoplasmic male sterile and restorer lines in 2018. Developed crosses were evaluated in 2019 in randomized block design at Karaj, Iran. There was considerable heterosis in desired direction for phenological and agronomic traits which indicated that highly heterotic crosses may be selected to expand yield potential in Iran. Two hybrids R29 × A212 and R19 × A212 with higher seed and oil yield and positive heterosis for these two characteristics were identified as superior hybrids. The results indicated that association of optimum alleles related to flowering time may result in development of early maturing hybrids than related parents. Moreover, heterozgosity may mask recessive alleles, therefore, specific combining ability of parents may be more important than per se performance of inbred parents.The role of maternal effects should be taken into account in breeding of a trait and higher heterosis alone cannot be a reason for the superiority of a hybrid for a particular trait, and ultimate expression of a given feature is more important.

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    Mehdi Ghaffari, Farnaz Shariati, Nadia Safavi Fard

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  • Abstract

    Oat [Avena sativa (L.)] cultivar “Super Green Oats” was developed through conventional breeding methods by the Fodder Research Institute, Sargodha, and released as general cultivar in 2020. Commercial cultivar is an advanced line of “FRI-03” which is derived from cross of parental accessions (No. 668 × No. 632) and subsequent selections in various segregating populations (F2 - F6), through pedigree methods having uniformity > 99%. Cultivar had 9% and 15% forage yield advantage over commercial check “Sargodha-Oat 2011” during 2014 and 2015 station trials while it gave 9% higher fodder yield during 2016-17 during zonal trials over commercial check.. It is green, tall, multi-tillering, with slight later in maturing cultivar and produce light brown seed. It has many desirable forage quality traits, including high palatability (82%), protein content (10%) and had resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. It flower about 10 days later than standard check variety. Moreover, it has higher stability (coefficient of regression bi = 1.06) calculated over 3 environments for 2 years. Its robust yield combine with high palatability and high protein contents than standard check and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress show that Super Green Oat will be highly useful cultivars in both irrigated and arid region of Punjab Province. Moreover, the cultivar will be potential parent for the development of new pedigrees for the genetic improvement of oat germplasm.

    Digital object identifier:

    //doi.org/10.52587/JAF030201

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    Imtiaz Akram Khan Niazi

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  • Abstract

    Researchers have been investigating multiple alternatives for synthetic plastic to completely replace polystyrene plastics, one of which is Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA is biodegradable and biocompatible, and it shows elastomeric and thermostable properties comparable to polystyrene. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacterial species TattaPani Kashmir and Karachi Mangrove forest capable of surviving high salinity and poroducing PHA. The isolated bacterial strains were provided with different growth conditions such as pH, Temperature and salinity for optimized growth and PHA production. Ten bacterial strains were selected for this experiment, and it was found that Bacillus aryabhattaiWK31 produced maximum (61%) PHA at 37℃, 6% NaCl and 6.8 pH. Similarly, strain Bacillus aryabhattaiS1, Bacillus halotoleranus14SM, and Bacillus aryabhattaiAFSN2 were also able to produce 55, 58 and 61 percent PHA at similar growth condition. Moreover, these bacteria, particularly 14Sm, were able to tolerate salinity as high as 12 g l-1. The importance of optimized growth conditions is unparalleled as bacteria, like other organisms, need ideal conditions to produce a maximum polymer.

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    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF040201

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    Naima Khan, Nazia Jamil

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  • Abstract

    The awareness of Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variation in olive is pertinent for healthy plant growth. The aim of this research was to examine the seasonal variation of Ca and Mg contents in olive leaves. A field study was conducted for one year at University Research Farm, Chakwal, Pakistan. Leaf nutrients were measured on monthly basis during 2017 growing season. Six olive varieties BARI Zaitoon-1, PS-1, VP-1, Balkasar, Moraiolo and Chitina were selected. Preliminary soil sampling was done for evaluation of fertility status, soil texture, soil pH, EC, total organic matter, CaCO3, NO3-, available P, extractable K+, soluble Ca, Mg and Ca were analyzed initially. Soil was categorized as alkaline having no salinity issue and it was found weak to moderate calcareous, soil texture was sandy loam to loam. Organic Matter was less. The study revealed that there was deficient N, P whereas K, Ca and Mg were adequate in olive orchard. In olive, highest Ca peaks were noticed in summer season during the initiation of leaf development. The varietal comparison revealed that Ca concentration in each olive variety was above the sufficient level. In winter highest Mg peaks were noticed from fruit growth to the end of dormancy. There was no Mg deficiency among olive cultivars. The results recommend that there is further need to sample flower or fruits to understand the nutrient status of orchards.

    Digital object identifier:

    https://doi.org/10.52587/JAF050201

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    Anum Farhat, Muhammad Fahad Irfan, Mavia Murad, Muhammad Umer Afzal